What different stroke types are there?
There are two main types of stroke. One (ischemic stroke) is caused by blockage of a blood vessel; the other (hemorrhagic stroke) is caused by bleeding. Bleeding strokes have a much higher fatality rate than strokes caused by clots.
Ischemic stroke is the most common type of stroke. It is characterized by the presence of a blood clot that blocks the flow of blood to one area of the brain, depriving that area of oxygen. Thrombotic stroke is a type of ischemic stroke, accounts for 40 percent to 50 percent of all cases of stroke. In thrombotic stroke, a blood clot forms in one of the brain's arteries, blocking blood flow to the brain. In most cases, the artery was already narrowed as a result of atherosclerosis (fatty build-up). Embolic stroke is a type of ischemic stroke, accounts for 20 percent of all cases of stroke. In embolic stroke, a blood clot originates in the heart or in blood vessels outside of the brain and travels to one of the brain's arteries, obstructing the flow of blood.
Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for 10 percent to 15 percent of all cases of stroke. In hemorrhagic stroke, bleeding in the brain itself (intracerebral hemorrhage) or between the brain and the skull (subarachnoid hemorrhage) disrupts brain function. Bleeding usually occurs because of a rupture in arterial walls that are already weakened by high blood pressure. A pool of blood compresses brain tissue in its vicinity, preventing adequate amounts of fresh blood from reaching the area. One common cause of such a hemorrhage is an aneurysm, a weak spot on an artery wall. These spots tend to stretch and they can rupture causing damage to the brain. High blood pressure combined with cholesterol can contribute to hemorrhage. An artery encrusted with plaque from cholesterol becomes brittle and prone to cracks. Hypertension increases the risk that a brittle wall will give way and release blood into surrounding tissue.
More information on the stroke
What is a stroke? - Stroke (cerebrovascular accident) is a sudden loss of consciousness resulting when the rupture or occlusion of a blood vessel leads to oxygen lack in the brain.
What're the different types of strokes? - There are two main types of stroke. Ischemic stroke is the most common type of stroke. Hemorrhagic stroke is caused by bleeding.
What is ischemic stroke? - Ischemic stroke is the most common type. Ischemic stroke can further be divided into two main types: thrombotic and embolic.
What is a thrombotic stroke? - Thrombotic strokes are strokes caused by a thrombus (blood clot) that develops in the arteries supplying blood to the brain.
What is an embolic stroke? - Embolic strokes often result from heart disease or heart surgery and occur rapidly and without any warning signs.
What's transient ischemic attack (TIA) or mini stroke? - A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is often called a mini stroke. A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a transient stroke that lasts only a few minutes.
What is hemorrhagic stroke? - In hemorrhagic stroke, bleeding in the brain itself or between the brain and the skull (subarachnoid hemorrhage) disrupts brain function.
What is an intracerebral hemorrhage? - Intracerebral hemorrhage is usually caused by hypertension (high blood pressure), and bleeding occurs suddenly and rapidly.
What is a subarachnoid hemorrhage? - Subarachnoid hemorrhage results when bleeding occurs between the brain and the meninges in the subarachnoid space.
What causes a stroke? - Stroke caused by damage to blood vessels in the brain. The ischemic stroke is usually caused by atherosclerosis (hardening) of blood vessels.
What are the symptoms of a stroke? - The symptoms of a stroke depend on what part of the brain and how much of the brain tissue is affected. Stroke symptoms usually come on suddenly.
What are the risk factors for a stroke? - Risk factors for a stroke include high blood pressure (hypertension), atherosclerosis, cigarette smoking, atrial fibrillation, diabetes.
How is a stroke diagnosed? - Stroke is diagnosed through several techniques: a short neurological examination, blood tests, CT scans or MRI scans, Doppler ultrasound, and arteriography.
What's the treatment for a stroke? - The aim of the therapy is to minimise the size of the stroke and therefore minimise subsequent disability by restoring blood flow to the area of the brain affected quickly.
What medications can be used for stroke treatment? - Intravenous thrombolytics. clot-busting, or thrombolytic drugs are now administered intravenously for ischemic (not hemorrhagic) stroke.
What can be done to prevent a stroke? - Prevention of stoke is an important public health concern. Medication or drug therapy is the most common method of stroke prevention.
What're the surgical treatments for stroke? - Surgical treatments for stroke include carotid endarterectomy, angioplasty, clipping. Clipping involves clamping off the aneurysm.
How to recover from a stroke? - Spontaneous recovery accounts for most improvements in the first month after a stroke. Successful recovery after a stroke depends on the extent of brain damage.
What is stroke rehabilitation? - Stroke rehabilitation is the process by which patients with disabling strokes undergo treatment to help them return to normal life.