What is mitral valve stenosis?
Mitral valve stenosis is a narrowing of the opening of the mitral valve in the heart. The mitral valve is 1 of 4 valves in your heart. It is located between the upper left heart chamber (left atrium) and lower left heart chamber (left ventricle). The mitral valve has 2 flaps, or leaflets, which open and close like a door with each heartbeat and normally permit blood to flow in only
Stenosis of the mitral valve prevents the valve from opening normally. A narrowed (stenotic) mitral valve reduces the amount of blood that can flow through your heart. Over time, the stenosis can cause high blood pressure in the left atrium and the lungs. The left atrium gets bigger, your lungs become congested with fluid, and breathing becomes difficult.
In normal cardiac physiology, the mitral valve opens during left ventricular diastole, to allow blood to flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle. The reason the blood flows in the proper direction is that, during this phase of the cardiac cycle, the pressure in the left ventricle is less than the pressure in the left atrium, and the blood flows down the pressure gradient. In the case of mitral stenosis, the valve does not open completely, so the left atrium has to have a higher pressure than normal to have the blood overcome the increased gradient caused by the mitral valve stenosis.
Mitral stenosis means that when the mitral valve opens, it does not open fully. It is narrowed ('stenosed') when it is open. So, there is a partial restriction of blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle. This in turn means there is a reduced amount of blood that is pumped out into the body from the left ventricle. Basically, the more narrowed the valve, the less blood that can get through, the more severe the problem is likely to be.
More information on mitral valve diseases (mitral valve prolapse, mitral valve regurgitation, mitral stenosis)
What is mitral valve disease? - There are many diseases which affect the mitral valve and its supporting structures. The most common disorder of the mitral valve is the partial backflow.
What is mitral valve prolapse? - Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a heart valve condition marked by the displacement of a thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole.
What causes mitral valve prolapse? - The cause of mitral valve prolapse is unknown. It is more common in people with low body weight and low blood pressure.
What're the symptoms of mitral valve prolapse? - Symptoms of mitral valve prolapse include fatigue, palpitations, chest pain, anxiety, migraine headaches, and even stroke.
How is mitral valve prolapse diagnosed? - Mitral valve prolapse is diagnosed in the course of a physical examination. Echocardiography is useful in diagnosing a prolapsed mitral valve.
What're the treatments for mitral valve prolapse? - Most people with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) do not have symptoms or need treatment. Mitral valve prolapse can be treated with surgical replacement of the mitral valve.
What is mitral valve regurgitation? - Mitral valve regurgitation happens when some of the blood in your heart leaks from the left ventricle into the left atrium.
What causes mitral valve regurgitation? - The causes of primary mitral regurgitation include myxomatous degeneration of the mitral valve, ischemic heart disease, coronary artery disease.
What're the symptoms of mitral regurgitation? - The symptoms associated with mitral regurgitation are dependent on which phase of the disease process the individual is in.
What're the complications of mitral regurgitation? - Complications of mitral regurgitation include congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, blood clot, endocarditis.
How is mitral regurgitation diagnosed? - The diagnosis of mitral regurgitation usually employs imaging studies such as echocardiography or magnetic resonance angiography of the heart.
What're the treatments for mitral regurgitation? - The treatment of mitral regurgitation depends on the acuteness of the disease and whether there are associated signs of hemodynamic compromise.
What is mitral valve stenosis? - Mitral valve stenosis is a narrowing of the opening of the mitral valve in the heart. Stenosis of the mitral valve prevents the valve from opening normally.
What causes mitral stenosis? - Mitral stenosis is often caused by having had rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever can cause an infection in the mitral valve.
What are the symptoms of mitral stenosis? - Symptoms of mitral stenosis include shortness of breath, fainting, dizziness or tiredness, chest pains (angina), chest infections.
How is mitral valve stenosis diagnosed? - Mitral valve stenosis is usually detected by a physician listening to heart sounds. The diagnosis of mitral stenosis is most easily made by echocardiography.
What're the treatments for mitral stenosis? - The treatment options for mitral stenosis include medical management, surgical replacement of the valve, and percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty.
Mitral valve repair and replacement - Mitral valve replacement surgery is open-heart surgery that is done while the patient is under general anesthesia.